Date sent:        Fri, 10 May 1996 17:52:55 -0700 (PDT)
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From:             vericomm@c2.org
Subject:          MindNet Journal - Vol. 1, No. 73
    V E R I C O M M / MindNet         "Quid veritas est?"

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Editor: Mike Coyle 

Assistant Editor: Rick Lawler

Research: Darrell Bross


Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Physiological Responses Applicable to Development of
Less-Than-Lethal Weapons

Sponsored by National Institute of Justice

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Less-than-lethal weapons have a variety of applications in law
enforcement, including rescuing hostages, stopping fleeing
felons, and quelling prison disturbances. The National Institute
of Justice is sponsoring a broad program to develop new
techniques for "friendly force" as an alternative to the use of
deadly force. As part of this program, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL) is examining approaches based on known
physiological responses to certain types of stimuli. These
"weapons" would temporarily incapacitate an individual or a
group with no lasting physiological damage. These concepts are
based on ORNL's experience and expertise in biological-based
systems and biophysical responses, particularly in evaluating
the physical responses of humans to a variety of chemical,
physical and radiological agents. ORNL also has extensive
experience and expertise in risk analysis and in risk assessment
and modeling.

The ORNL less than-lethal weapons project sponsored by the
National Institute of Justice began in September 1993. The
following tasks are being performed:

*   Locate and compile data from tests, accidents, medical
    literature, etc. on biological and biophysical responses
    to energetic stimuli (such as electromagnetic fields). 
*   Analyze the information and identify promising candidate
    mechanisms for further development for a friendly force
*   Evaluate the applicability of the proposed approaches to
    several realistic scenarios (such as hostage rescue or riot

ORNL has already examined several possible concepts for
less-than-lethal weapons based on known physiological responses
to energetic stimuli, including a thermal gun, a seizure gun,
and a magnetophosphene gun. A thermal gun would have the
operational effect of heating the body to 105 to 107F, thereby
incapacitating any threat, based on the fact that even a slight
fever can affect the ability of a person to perform even simple
tasks. This approach is built on four decades of research
relating radio frequency exposure to body heating. A seizure gun
would use electromagnetic energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures in persons within the range of a particular
electromagnetic field. The magnetophosphene gun is designed
around a biophysical mechanism which evokes a visual response
and is thought to be centered in the retina, known as
magnetophosphenes. This effect is experienced when a person
receives a blow to the head and sees "stars". This same effect
can be produced with electromagnetic energy. While there are a
number of technical challenges to be overcome in building
devices of these types, less-than-lethal weapons based on
physiological responses to energetic stimuli would provide a
safe and effective means of dealing with a number of law
enforcement situations where use of deadly force is not

For further information contact:

Ray Downs, National Institute of Justice (202) 616-3509 Susan
Sherrow, Oak Ridge Special Projects Office (615) 576-8024

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy
Laboratory Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

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Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Section A, November 22, 1976

Mind-Altering Microwaves:  Soviets Studying Invisible Ray

A newly declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report 
says extensive Soviet research into microwaves might lead to
methods of causing disoriented human behavior, nerve disorders,
and even heart attacks.


A copy of the study was provided by the agency to the Associated
Press in response to a request under the Freedom of Information


Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating
intercranially (within the head) can be induced by signal
modulation at very low average power densities, the study said.


One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart
seizure, the report said.

It said this has been accomplished experimentally in frogs
by synchronizing the pulses of a microwave signal with the
animal's heartbeat and beaming the radiation at the chest

Microwave News, January-February 1987


Six hundred scientists and engineers with security clearances
spend the first week of December at Kirtland Air Force Base in
New Mexico examining the potential of high-power microwaves to
zap enemy electronics...

... Many branches of the Department of Defense were represented,
including the Air Force, the Army and the Navy, together with
DARPA, DIA, and DNA.  The Lawrence Livermore Labs were also 
well represented, as were most of the big defense contractors -
General Dynamics, Physics International and TRW each have a 
high-power microwave testing facility.

In addition to these sources, susceptibility and hardening, 
there was one on biological effects:  Dr. David Erwin and 
Major Robert Downs represented the Air Force and Howard Bassen
and Dr. John D'Andrea described the Army and Navy programs,
respectively.  Dr. Frank Barnes of the University of Colorado
in Boulder presented a poster paper on his and Dr. Howard
Wachtel's research on the effects of pulsed microwaves.

Chuck de Caro, a former correspondent for the Cable News Network,
considers the possibility that the U.S. is falling behind the
U.S.S.R. in microwave weapons in "The Zap Gap", to be published
in the March issue of "The Atlantic" (see also MWN November-
December 1986).

Microwave News, January-February 1996

RF WEAPONS - Disabling People and Electronics

The military continues to explore development of RF weapons
for the conflicts of the future.  For instance, the "First
Directed Energy Warfare (DEW) Conference", held last year
at the Mitre Corp. in McLean VA, featured Dr. David Erwin 
of the Armstrong Lab at Brooks AFB, San Antonio, TX, on
"Directed Energy Warfare RF Effects", and D.r Jose Pina of
the CIA on "Ground Combat Applications of RF".  Other topics
included "Personnel Vulnerability" and Directed Energy 
Warfare Biological Effects".

The June meeting was organized by the Association of Old
Crows, whose members are specialists in electronic warfare.
Conference participants had to have security clearances of
"Secret" or higher, as has been the case at similar meetings
in the past (See MWN, J-F 87 and N-D 93).

Public discussions of RF/MW weapons have focussed on dis-
rupting technology.  But a recent Article in the Airpower
Journal revealed "for the first time that the military is
developing high-powered microwave weapons for use against
human beings", reports Peter Cassidy in the January 1996
"Progressive" (see p. 14).

RF/MW and EMF-based weapons are also being studied for
civilian law enforcement.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) in Oak Ridge TN will soon complete a literature
review for the National Insitute of Justice on the 
feasibility of "thermal guns" which could heat the body to
105 to 107 degrees F and incapacitate the target; "seizure
guns" which would use EM energy to induce epileptic-like
seizures; and "magnetophosphene guns" which would cause
the target to "see stars".

The institute's Ray Downs in Washington cautioned that the
report may not be made public.  ORNL's Dr. Clay Easterly
has said that some effects not associated with heating
could be useful in developing nonlethal weapons.
(See MWN, N-D 93.)

Microwave News, September-October 1996, page 19

Stop That Car or We'll Zap You

They're the sexiest gadgets in this year's action movies:
EMP weapons, which use electromagnetic pulses to zap
electronics.  They have starring roles in Goldeneye, the
latest James Bond movie, as well as in Broken Arrow, Escape
From LA, and Eraser.  And soon they may be coming to a 
police car near you.

Law Enforcement News (September 30) reports that the U.S.
Army and the National Institute of Justice are running a
$500,000 field test to see if EMP guns can force a car to
stop by disabling its electrical systems.  The plan is to
use EMP to do away with high speed chases (another Hollywood
staple).  This is another example of the growing interest in
using nonlethal weapons developed by the military.