|United States Patent
,   et al.
July 7, 1992
System for implementing the synchronized superimposition of subliminal
An apparatus and system for the controlled delivery of a subliminal video
and/or audio message on to a source signal from a video tape player or
similar. The source signal is divided into audio and video portions. A
video processor reads sychronization information from the source signal. A
controller transmits a stored subliminal image at designated times to a
mixer amplifier fully synchronized with the source signal. Concurrently,
an audio subliminal message is applied to the source audio at a volume
level regulated at some fraction to the source audio. The combined signals
are transmitted to a monitor for undistracted viewing.
Dingwall; Robert T. (Clinton Corners, NY);
Bellin; Howard T. (New York, NY)
Visual Subliminal Technologies, Inc. (New York, NY)
November 29, 1988|
|Current U.S. Class:
||348/729; 348/563 |
|Field of Search:
U.S. Patent Documents
|4230990||Oct., 1980||Lert, Jr. et al.||358/84.
|4616261||Oct., 1986||Crawford et al.||358/142.
|4777529||Oct., 1988||Schultz et al.||358/143.
|4807031||Feb., 1989||Broughton et al.||358/146.
Primary Examiner: McElheny, Jr.; Donald
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Hopgood, Calimafde, Kalil, Blaustein & Judlowe
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for superimposing a subliminal video message on a
continuous source video signal comprising:
a. means for receiving a source video signal having horizontal and vertical
b. means for detecting said horizontal and vertical synchronization
information from said source video signal;
c. means for generating said subliminal video message; and
d. means responsive to said horizontal and vertical synchronization
information comprising a video carrier oscillator means and a video shift
register means and adapted to superimpose said generated subliminal video
message onto said source video signal wherein said subliminal video
message is synchronized with said source video signal.
This invention generally relates to a system for processing a subliminal
message signal. More particularly, this invention relates to a process and
apparatus for superimposing a subliminal signal onto a continuous
composite source signal at controlled intervals.
The human cognitive process is often broken down into discrete levels of
perception. These range from conscious recognition of outside events down
through varying degrees of semi- or unconscious levels of recognition. The
factors that contribute to the level of event recognition or perception
are numerous and include the duration of the event and the degree of
autonomous processing normally associated with the event. For example,
many activities reach such a level of instinctive behavior that conscious
thought is no longer involved in the individual's reaction to the event;
in appearance the reaction process becomes automated. In fact, the
individual's reaction to the event is often relegated to subconscious
control, as the individual is not consciously aware of his reaction to the
event. In this context "event" is used to describe external stimuli to an
individual, as perceived by the individual's senses, e.g., sight, hearing,
Subliminal perception involves the recognition by the individual of an
event on an unconscious or semi-conscious level, i.e., the individual is
conscious, but the level of sensory perception of the event is so low as
to only register on the individual's subconscious memory. An example of a
subliminal event would be a short duration image of a soft drink presented
during an engrossing visual presentation, such as a movie. Since the image
of the soft drink is provided for a fraction of a second, the viewer does
not consciously perceive the image and continues to focus on the movie.
But, the split-second soft drink image is perceived "subconsciously" and
initiates a thirst drive in the individual. It is this potential
commercial exploitation of subliminal perception that has evoked
significant regulation on its use.
The use of subliminal perception has extended into the medical field and is
applied for beneficial behavioral modification. For example, instead of an
image of a soft drink, the subliminal message may include anti-smoking, or
anti-eating symbols or statements. In the case of treating anorexia
nervosa, the subliminal symbols will contain enticing visions of food in
an attempt to stimulate a subconscious hunger drive. These symbols,
received on the subconscious level, will contribute to behavior
modification in accordance with an overall treatment. Furthermore, the
subliminal message can be applied as an image, a low volume audio, or a
combination of both image and audio. Low volume audio, as with the short
duration image, is perceived on a lower order of memory and, therefore,
not consciously recognized by the recipient.
Television/video systems are ideally suited for subliminal message
conduits. In practice the problems involved in adapting the standard
video/TV system for medical application of subliminal perception are
numerous. To preclude improper use of the subliminal process, the
insertion of the subliminal message must be a decentralized operation,
i.e., it cannot be part of a central broadcast signal sent to many users.
Moreover, the individual must have control of the message for proper
application. Inserting the subliminal message locally, as a separate
signal to the receiver, has remained troublesome, as the insertion process
itself often distorts the source signal. For example, in U.S. Pat. No.
4,616,261, a personal computer is used to turn off the source (i.e.,
broadcast) signal, insert a subliminal image and then reconnect the source
signal. This interference with the source signal will invariably distort
the resulting video image in a manner cognizable by the viewer.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a
subliminal message in the form of a short duration image, as applied
during the normal use of a conventional video system.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a simplified
apparatus adaptable to a home video system for superimposing a subliminal
message locally controlled by the user.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an integrated
system for superimposing a subliminal image at controlled intervals and a
subliminal audio signal at controlled volume onto a source signal.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a system for
superimposing a short duration synchronized subliminal image onto a source
video signal without distorting the source signal.
The above and other objects are realized in an apparatus and system for
superimposing a subliminal message onto a source signal. The source signal
is taken from a suitable discrete device, i.e., television receiver, video
cassette recorder, laser disk, etc., in the form of separate audio and
video signals. The video signal is processed for horizontal and vertical
synchronization information. A controller recalls a video subliminal
message from integrated memory and superimposes this message as a video
signal, fully synchronized, onto the existing video source signal. In
addition, the controller optionally feeds a low volume audio message into
the source audio signal, wherein the volume level is regulated at some
fractional value of the source audio.
The foregoing features of the present invention may be more fully
understood from the following detailed discussion of a specific
illustrative embodiment thereof, presented hereinbelow in conjunction with
the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the various subsystems of the present
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the video processing subsystem of the
present invention; and
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the audio processing subsystem of the
Referring to FIG. 1, the various components of the operative subliminal
system are presented. Signal Source 10 represents a source of composite
audio/video signal and can be selected from a number of possible devices,
including video tape recorders, laser disk players, television receivers,
and personal computers. The output signal from Signal Source 10, is a
divisible audio/video transmission, carrying the source image and sound
information. The video portion of this source signal is transmitted to the
video processor, 100, while the audio portion is transmitted to the audio
processor, 300. Video and audio processors, are shown in more detail in
FIGS. 2 and 3, respectively.
Referring now to FIG. 2, the video signal is transmitted to buffer
amplifier 110, split into parallel paths, and directed to the video mixer
170 and sync separator 120. The sync separator retrieves the vertical and
horizontal synchronization signals from the video signal.
As an aside, it is per se well-known that a video signal of a raster image
incorporates vertical and horizontal synchronization information. This
information is processed by the receiver to control the start of the
raster image scan in terms of initializing each horizontal line and new
frame. The industry recognized raster image is horizontally scanned at a
rate of 30 image frames per second.
Continuing with FIG. 2, the subliminal video image is processed by
controller 130. In this regard, controller 130 has an input means for
receiving and storing instructions regarding the insertion of the
subliminal video image. These instructions include time of image
insertion, selection of image, and other variations as per system
features. Controller 130 is connected to video image storage 140 and to
oscillator 150. As described above, the incoming synchronization signal to
controller 130 is separately read for both vertical and horizontal
information. A comparator in controller 130 tracks the synchronization
signal and controls the output of image storage 140 based thereon.
Image storage 140 comprises video buffer memory in the form of read only
memory (ROM) circuitry. The ROM circuits store one or more subliminal
images. These images are stored digitally as a matrix of pixels locations
and intensities. In this way, the ROM storage acts as a permanent frame
buffer, storing in single frame format, a digitally encoded subliminal
message image. Other image storage systems can be applied in a like
manner. For example, random access memory (RAM) can be applied as a
volatile source of the subliminal image, that can be modified or changed
by simple erasure and reprogramming. Alternatively, magnetic or optical
storage devices can be used for image storage, in either digital or analog
form. Pursuant to a drive signal from controller 130, the stored image in
ROM storage 140 is dumped into video shift register 160. Concurrent with
this transfer, oscillator 150 provides a synchronized harmonic input to
register 160 and thereby controls the synchronized output of the
subliminal image in proper video format for mixing in video mixing
Video shift register 160 operates by receiving the subliminal image message
as a stream of, e.g., 8 bit digital image segments from ROM storage 140,
and converts the digitally encoded information to the compatible video
image signal. The converted image signal is transposed onto an analog
carrier, received in parallel, from oscillator 150, forming a system
compatible video signal. This signal is then mixed with the source signal
at mixer amplifier 170.
As can be seen, the above arrangement provides the subliminal image as a
single frame superimposed on source video via video mixer 170. The use of
the horizontal and vertical synchronization information from the source
signal insures that the subliminal image frame is fully synchronized with
the source thereby preventing distortion of the source image as perceived
by the viewer. Furthermore, the synchronization signal from the source
video can act as a counter and clock, controlling the timed release of the
subliminal image pursuant to the stored instruction within controller 130.
The video signal with intermittent subliminal message passes to output
amplified 180, and is directed to an appropriate output device.
Referring now to FIG. 3, the audio processing portion of the subject system
is described in detail. As in the video system, the audio input from the
source signal is fed to a buffer amplifier 310. The output of buffer
amplifier 310 is directed, in parallel, to audio mixer 340 and automatic
gain control circuit (AGC) 320. AGC 320 monitors the intensity of the
source audio signals.
The subliminal audio signal is retrieved from storage 327, vis-a-vis
controller 325. The storage device is typically a magnetic tape drive
containing the subliminal audio message. As with the video image storage,
other storage devices, such as optical or electronic can be substituted.
The subliminal audio signal can run intermittently or continuously, as
directed by the instructions stored in controller 325. The subliminal
audio signal is fed to AGC amplifier 330 wherein the signal strength is
regulated to some fractional value of the source audio signal. More
specifically, AGC circuit 320 monitors the source intensity and adjusts
the subliminal audio signal intensity to insure that the subliminal
message is of significantly lower intensity compared to the source signal;
otherwise, the listener would consciously perceive the subliminal message,
during quiet moments in the source audio.
Output from AGC amplifier 330 is mixed with the original audio source at
mixer amplifier 340; the combined audio signal is fed to output amplifier
350 in preparation for an output device.
Referring back to FIG. 1, the output from video processor 100 and audio
processor 300 are directed individually to output devices. If a video
monitor is used, 400, the video and audio signals are fed to the video
monitor, in their respective demodulated form. For use with a conventional
television receiver, the video/audio signals are combined and modulated,
at RF (radio frequency) modulator 500. The modulated RF signal from
modulator 500 is then transmitted to TV receiver 600 from reception and
The above description has been based on discrete components to enhance
understanding of the functional characteristics of the system.
Alternatively, various functions can be performed through integrated
components. For example, controllers 150 and 325 can be integrated into a
single controller for operation of both the audio and video processors. In
a similar manner, ROM 140 and storage 327 can be integrated into a single
subliminal message storage device for operation in the subject apparatus.
Such a unified storage cartridge can be made removable so that the subject
system can be made applicable to a variety of behavioral treatments by
merely changing the subliminal information storage cartridge.
In operation, the viewer would turn on the source signal 10, activate the
audio and video signal processors, and then relax and watch the source
presentation. As controlled by the stored or programmed instructions,
single frame subliminal images would be intermittently superimposed during
the course of the presentation. Since a single raster frame is
approximately 1/30 of a second, the viewer would not consciously perceive
the image. Additionally, since the superimposed subliminal image is
synchronized directly with the source signal, there is no corresponding
distortion to the presentation and the image is solely perceived in the
subconscious memory of the viewer.
Concurrently, the audio subliminal message is inserted at controlled
intervals at a volume constantly maintained at some small fraction of the
source audio signal. The subliminal message is delivered to the viewer in
a controlled manner.
The above-described arrangement is merely illustrative of the principles of
the present invention. Numerous modifications and adaptations thereof will
be readily apparent to those skilled in this art without departing from
the spirit and scope of the invention.