|United States Patent
|Farmer , et al.
||October 17, 1995 |
Device for monitoring a magnetic field emanating from an organism
A diagnostic and therapeutic instrument for use in the treatment of living
organisms is provided including a sensor for detecting magnetic fields emanating
from the living organism. The sensor is located proximate to the organism and is
formed from a ferromagnetic core surrounded by a multi-turn fine wire coil. The
sensor is coupled to signal processing which amplifies a signal from the sensor
and filters out portions of the signal which represent background magnetic
fields emanating from other sources. The signal from the sensor is utilizable to
detect abnormalities in the field emanating from the organism indicative of the
organism's well-being. The signal can also be utilized to excite a magnetic
field radiator which outputs a field complementary to the field emanating from
||Farmer; Edward J. (1611 20th St.,
Sacramento, CA 95814); Hovey; Diane J. (1611 20th St., Sacramento,
CA 95814) |
||March 19, 1993|
|Current U.S. Class:
||600/409; 128/905; 324/260
|Field of Search:
U.S. Patent Documents
||Sidwell et al.
||Stoller et al.
||Hoogendoorn et al.
||Kasa et al.
||Ko et al.
||Woodley et al.
||Alfano et al.
||Taff et al.
||Zanakis et al.
||Nikias et al.
||Merickel et al.
||Morgan et al.
||Schurig et al.
||Hoenig et al.
||Liboff et al.
||Valdes Sosa et al.
Examiner: Smith; Ruth S.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Kreten;
1. A device for monitoring a magnetic field emanating
from an organism, comprising in combination: sensor means to sense a
magnetic field adapted to be positioned proximate to the organism; said
sensor means including means to generate a signal representative of the magnetic
field and emanating from said sensor means; an amplifier receiving said
signal from said sensor means and amplifying said signal; a filter
receiving said signal, said filter including means to filter out components of
said signal which are not indicative of the organism's magnetic field;
an output means to output said signal from said filter, said output
means coupled to said filter; wherein said filter includes means to
further filter out components of said signal having a frequency similar to that
exhibited by non-organic magnetic field sources; whereby portions of the signal
from other non-organic magnetic field sources are filtered out of said signal;
wherein said device includes means to transform said signal from a time
domain into a frequency domain and said output means includes means to interpret
said signal to determine the prevalence of different frequency components within
said signal, wherein said device includes an analog-to-digital converter
interposed between said sensor means and said output means, said converter
including means to receive as input said signal in analog form and means to
output said signal in a digital form, said digital form compatible with a
digital computer such that the signal can be inputted into a digital computer
for processing; and wherein said sensor means is a coil of wire wrapped
around a ferromagnetic core, the wire having opposite ends, and means to monitor
said ends for the voltage potential generated therebetween.
device of claim 1 wherein a digital computer is interposed between said
converter and said output, said digital computer including means to still
further filter said signal and means to enhance said signal.
3. A device
for monitoring a magnetic field emanating from an organism, comprising in
combination: sensor means to sense a magnetic field adapted to be
positioned proximate to the organism; said sensor means including means
to generate a signal representative of the magnetic field and emanating from
said sensor means; an amplifier receiving said signal from said sensor
means and amplifying said signal: a filter receiving said signal, said
filter including means to filter out components of said signal which are not
indicative of the organism's magnetic... field; and an output means to
output said signal from said filter, said output means coupled to said filter,
wherein said sensor means includes a coil of electrically conductive
wire, said coil of wire having at least one-thousands (1,000) turns therein
wrapped around a ferromagnetic core, said wire including opposite ends and said
sensor means including means to measure a voltage between said opposite ends.
4. The device of claim 3 wherein said amplifier has a gain of
one-hundred thousand (100,000).
5. The device of claim 3 wherein said
sensor means includes a magnetic circuit formed from ferromagnetic material
arranged in a loop attached to said ferromagnetic core at one end of said
ferromagnetic core, passing about an exterior of said coil of wire and coming to
a location adjacent to an opposite end of said core, said circuit spaced from
said opposite end of said core by a gap, said gap having a sufficient width to
allow portions of the organism to be located within said gap.
device of claim 3 wherein an analog-to-digital converter is interposed between
said filter and said output means, said analog-to-digital converter includes
means to convert said signal from analog to digital, and wherein said
output means includes a digital computer, said digital computer receiving said
signal from said analog-to-digital converter in digital form, said computer
including means to convert said signal from a time based domain to a frequency
7. The device of claim 6 wherein said digital computer
includes means to filter out portions of said signal having frequencies greater
than thirty (30) Hertz.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to the
systems, methods, and apparatus by which the electromagnetic emissions of a
living organism may be monitored. Specifically, the present invention relates to
the systems, methods, and means whereby the physical state and emotional state
of an organism and the changes in the physical and emotional state of the
organism can be monitored.
It also provides a means of altering the
physical state and emotional state of an organism by the introduction of
specific compensatory and corrective electromagnetic patterns associated with
the physical and emotional condition of the organism.
BACKGROUND OF THE
The concept of an energy field around a living organism that
reflects its physical condition is a central concept in Aurvedic medicine dating
back 5,000 years. The idea has appeared multiple times in different cultures and
at different times in history. It provides the foundation for healing practices
in Tibetan, Chinese, and Hawaiian medicine. The energy field is seen as having
multiple layers ranging from a greater density near the body to a rarefied layer
encircling the body and extending a greater distance therefrom. In all of the
aforementioned philosophies, the layer closest to the body is believed to
reflect its physical condition while those extending outward represent emotional
and spiritual conditions. In Sanskrit, the word describing the energy field is
"prana," in Chinese it is called "chi" and Hawaiian it is called "aka." It has
also been called the etheric field or aura. In all philosophies, illness is
believed to be the result of a lack of or imbalance in the energy field around
the body and can be observed by examining the field. Healing and regeneration
can only take place when the energy field is balanced and strong.
validity and acceptability of these ancient philosophies are of present interest
and are being tested with traditional western medicine. Dr. Deepak Chopra, M.D.,
FACS, former chief of staff of New England Memorial Hospital in Stoneham, Mass.
has devoted considerable attention to combining traditional western medicine
with Aurvadic philosophy. Dr. Chopra has chosen to use the term "Ayurveda"
(instead of the more common "Aurvada") because in his judgement this spelling
more properly reflects the Sanskrit roots of this philosophy. In his books,
which include Perfect Health, Creating Health, and Quantum Healing, he provides
many case histories to support his concept of Ayurvedic medicine. He
characterizes the Ayurvedic field with an analogy with quantum mechanics which
he expresses thus:
"In Ayurveda, the physical body is the gateway to
what I call the "quantum mechanical human body." Physics informs us that the
basic fabric of nature lies at the quantum level, far beyond atoms and
molecules. A quantum, defined as the basic unit of matter or energy, is from
10,000,000 to 100,000,000 times smaller than the smallest atom. At this level,
matter and energy become interchangeable. All quanta are made of invisible
vibrations--ghosts of energy--waiting to take physical form. Ayurveda says that
the same is true of the human body--it first takes form as intense but invisible
vibrations, called quantum fluctuations, before it proceeds to coalesce into
impulses of energy and particles of matter.
The quantum mechanical body
is the underlying basis for everything we are: thoughts, emotions, proteins,
cells, organs-any visible or invisible part of ourselves. At the quantum level,
your body is sending out all kinds of invisible signals, waiting for you to pick
Dr. Delores Krieger, RN researched the energy fields described
in these ancient philosophies and through rigorous controlled experiments
documented the healing that resulted from manipulating these energy fields. She
continued this research and taught the technique she named "Therapeutic Touch"
throughout her 20 year tenure as professor of neurophysiology at the New York
University School of Nursing until her recent retirement. She now teaches and
speaks on the subject at medical and nursing schools across the country.
During Dr. Krieger's research she met and continued to work with one of
the few individuals who profess to be able to actually see this energy field,
Dora Van Gelder Kunz. As part of Dr. Krieger's establishment of an
experimentally documented baseline that would establish credibility with
mainstream medicine, both women participated in a study arranged by Elmer Green,
Ph.D., Director of Research at the Menniger Foundation. The study was conducted
during a Council Grove Conference during which a patient was brought in from
another state along with his physician and a complete set of lab reports. Each
woman was allowed to examine the patient over a 15 minute period, but were not
permitted to talk with the person. At the end of their examination each woman
presented her findings to a panel of five physicians and the patient's
physician. Dora Kunz's diagnosis was rated at 100 percent while Dr. Krieger
received a rating of 80 percent.
A Therapeutic Touch practitioner that
is unable to see the etheric field around the body assesses the patient's
condition by moving both hands over the energy field surrounding the patient's
body. The perceived differences in the field indicate injury or disease in the
underlying body structure. The assessment has been described by many experienced
practitioners as the most difficult part of the process because it is frequently
very difficult to feel the differences in the field of a very ill patient, or a
The present invention has demonstrated a high degree of
correlation with the impressions of practitioners trained and experienced in
therapeutic touch. It serves to augment therapeutic touch as a diagnostic tool.
It also serves as a training aid in teaching therapeutic touch.
with the apparatus have also established predictable electromagnetic field
variations resulting from changes in mental activity level. For example, the
waveform emitted by the subject becomes significantly more complex when
responding to a command question requiring the subject to generate a specific
type of visual image. The increase in complexity occurs in the absence of speech
and when speech is required, precedes verbalization of the response and decays
rapidly when the verbal response is complete.
Tests involving stress,
including situations in which the subject attempts to provide false answers to
questions, produce more complex and higher amplitude responses than situations
in which the subject experiences less stress.
Others have addressed the
concept of diagnosis through external measurements by monitoring skin potential
using various techniques. These techniques use contacting sensors and monitor
direct current flow on the surface of the body, and hence do not monitor fields
about the body or emissions therefrom. They demonstrate the state of the art in
non-invasive monitoring and diagnostic techniques.
Dr. Robert O. Becker,
MD, who was head of the Surgical Department at the U.S. Veteran's Administration
Hospital in Syracuse, N.Y., did considerable work with what he called
"micropotentials" around injuries and their effect on healing. He also studied
the effects of low frequency radio emissions on humans.
described his research thusly:
"My research began with experiments on
regeneration, the ability of some animals, notably the salamander to grow
perfect replacements for parts of the body that have been destroyed. These
studies led to the discovery of a hitherto unknown aspect of animal life--the
existence of electrical currents in parts of the nervous system. This
breakthrough in turn led to a better understanding of bone fracture healing, new
possibilities for cancer research, and hope of human regeneration--even of the
heart and spinal cord--in the not to distant future. Finally, a knowledge of
life's electrical dimension has yielded fundamental insights into pain, healing,
growth, consciousness, the nature of life itself, and the dangers of our
I believe these discoveries presage a
revolution in biology and medicine. One day they may enable the physician to
control and stimulate healing at will."
His research focused on the
bio-electrical "current of injury," a change in potential at the site of injury,
that initiated the healing process in salamanders and frogs with the hope the
information could be applied to his surgical patients. This research brought him
together with Dr. Charles Bachman from the Syracuse University Physics
Department. Together they demonstrated that a semiconducting DC current flows
through the body of the frog utilizing the motor nerves for positive direction
and sensory nerves for negative. Likewise the current flowing through the
salamander's brain followed a similar pattern and anaesthesia could be induced
by regulating the current. A similar test on human subjects also demonstrated a
variation in back-to-front current varied with changes in consciousness just as
in salamanders. It was strongest during heightened physical or mental activity,
it declined during rest, and it reversed direction in both normal sleep and
From this research a small electrical generator connected
to silver mesh "cloth" was developed to speed tissue and bone regeneration.
On a National Institute of Health grant requested by the Army Surgeon
General's office, Becker demonstrated the DC flow through acupuncture points and
their meridians and confirmed they followed the same pattern established in his
work with amphibians. "Each point was positive compared to its environs, and
each one had a field surrounding it, with its own characteristic shape . . . It
was obvious . . . that at least a major part of the acupuncture charts has an
objective basis in reality."
Dr. Becker and Dr. David Cohen of MIT's
Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory used the superconducting quantum
interferometric device (SQUID) to measure the human head. Dr. Becker summarized
the laboratories' work thus, "They found two kinds of magnetic fields. Quickly
reversing AC fields produced by the back and forth ion currents in nerve and
muscle. They're strongest in the heart, since its cells contract in synchronal.
The SQUID has also confirmed the existence of the DC perineural system, which,
especially in the brain, produces steady DC magnetic fields one billionth the
strength of the earth's field of about one-half gauss."
work resulted in U.S. Pat. No. 4,557,271 for a "Method and Apparatus for
Detecting Body Illness, Dysfunction, Disease and/or Pathology." Dr. Becker based
his patent on a method for "non-invasively measuring bioelectric potentials at
selected dermal (skin) points on the body of man to detect existing or impending
illness, dysfunction, disease and/or pathology." His sensing apparatus used
"D.C. potential sensing, microgrid electrodes forming voltage input means to the
digital neurometer instrumentation. For most measurement purposes the microgrid
electrodes are interfaced with bilateral dermal sites on the fingers and toes of
the subject. Generally, the microgrid sensing electrodes contact the terminal
phalanx of the fingers and toes of the subject. The bilateral microgrid
electrodes and bilateral ground electrodes are connected to a high input
impedance linear amplifier which converts the very low D.C. biopotentials sensed
by the microgrid electrodes and ground/electrodes into low impedance higher
voltage signals." He goes on to describe computer processing of the signals.
Dr. Becker fixated on skin surface potentials and the analysis thereof.
Many medical instruments are based on potentials measured on the surface of the
skin, the electrocardiogram (EKG) being a notable example.
In 1975, Drs.
Samuel Williamson, Lloyd Daufman, and Douglas Brenner of NYU succeeded in
measuring the head's field without a shielded enclosure, even amid the
electromagnetic noise of downtown Manhattan. More important, they found that the
magnetoencephalogram (MEG)--a recording of changes in the brain's field
analogous to the EEG--is often a more accurate reflection of mental activity
than the EEG.
The present invention is focused on the concept of the
Aurvedic field itself as opposed to skin surface potentials that may or may not
be related directly to it. A radiating field that can interact with another
human sensor would, in classical physics, be explained in terms of thermal
radiation, an electrostatic field, an electromagnetic field, or some new force.
Thermal analysis has been used as a medical diagnostic technique for
years. It is well understood that higher temperatures exist near injuries than
in surrounding tissue. Thermal imaging can be conducted by contacting thermal
sensors or by infrared sensitive cameras. While this can be an effective
diagnostic tool in some situations it has not exhibited a very broad range of
Based on the work of Becker and others, an electrostatic
field does exist between locations on the body. Differences in potential exist
between locations on a single body and as Leon Ernst Eeman demonstrated in the
1920s in England, it is possible to create potential paths that can form
circuits involving multiple persons. These are essentially D.C. circuits. Eeman
received a U.K. Patent around 1922 for a bio-circuit device. The bio-circuit is
based on his hypothesis that humans radiate energy, and this energy radiates
more powerfully or accumulates more readily at specific areas of the body. These
locations can be linked together to create a circuit that enhances recuperative
processes and produces a flow of energy. He called this energy the "energy of
life" although the characteristics he described for it more closely position it
with Becker's micropotentials. Eeman's bio-circuit consists of two copper mesh
pads connected together with a length of wire. Each pad also has a copper handle
connected to it by a wire. The patient assumes a reclining position with one pad
under his head and the other under his lower back. He then crosses his legs at
the ankles and grasps one handle in each hand. The circuit balanced the energy
potential across the body and enhanced healing. Eeman used this device in his
London healing practice from 1922 until shortly before his death in 1958.
Not only are the signals involved in the operation of the present
invention of very low intensity but they are effectively masked by the much
higher levels of the fields created by electric power systems (60 Hz. in the
United States). The applicants' research indicates the emissions of interest for
diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are in the range of 0.1 to 30 Hz. Because of
the low frequencies and their closeness to 60 Hz their presence has been
effectively masked to less persistent investigators.
invention is the only technique that has been shown to correlate with the
judgments of persons trained in therapeutic touch. It is the only technique that
provides all measurements on the basis of electromagnetic emissions. It does not
require contact with the subject of the examination. It does not rely on
potential differences between locations on the skin nor on where or how such
measurements are made.
The present apparatus has effectively dealt with
the 60 Hz. masking problem by active filtering to reduce the composite signal to
one in which the 60 Hz. noise is no longer the dominant component and then using
digital filtering techniques, in a computer analysis program, to remove the
remaining 60 Hz. components as well as decompose the composite time-domain
signal into its frequency domain constituents.
The following prior art
reflects the state of the art of which applicant is aware and is included
herewith to discharge applicant's acknowledged duty to disclose relevant prior
art. It is stipulated, however, that none of these references teach singly nor
render obvious when considered in any conceivable combination the nexus of the
instant invention as disclosed in greater detail hereinafter and as particularly
U.S. PAT. NO.
ISSUE DATE INVENTOR
3,721,230 March 20, 1973 Ziernicki
3,727,604 April 17, 1973 Sidwell, et al.
3,951,134 April 20, 1976 Malech
4,134,395 January 16, 1979
4,557,271 December 10, 1985
Stoller, et al.
4,602,639 July 29, 1986 Hoogendoorn, et al.
4,625,732 December 2, 1986
Kasa, et al.
4,688,580 August 25, 1987
Ko, et al.
4,690,149 September 1, 1987
4,697,599 October 6, 1987
Woodley, et al.
4,719,425 January 12, 1988
4,864,282 September 5, 1989
4,961,428 October 9, 1990
Nikias, et al.
4,951,674 August 28, 1990
Zanakis, et al.
5,003,979 April 2, 1991 McRickel, et al
5,092,835 March 3, 1992 Schurig, et al.
Zanakis et al were awarded U.S. Pat. No. 4,951,674 for a
Biomagnetic Analytical System Using Fiber-Optic Magnetic Sensors. Zanakis'
system is primarily oriented toward mapping the points of emission of low level
radiation from the brain or other tissue. Zanakis includes a "magnetic shield"
surrounding his sensor array so that, "sensors in the array are magnetically
shielded from each other to prevent magnetic interaction therebetween as well as
from magnetic fields extraneous to the region of interest, thereby obviating the
need for a shielded room to conduct studies on biomagnetic activity." This
allows his apparatus to concentrate on the extremely low level emissions, which
he describes as having an intensity of "about one picotesla (1 pT=10.sup.-12 T)"
from within the brain itself and to determine the location within the brain that
is the source of the emissions He further notes that, "The magnetic field
emanating from the brain has a strength much below that emitted by the heart.
Hence monitoring of brain magnetic activity presents formidable difficulties."
Zanakis further teaches, "The characteristics of biomagnetic activity
that are measurable are the strength of the field, the frequency domain and the
nature of the field pattern outside of the body." It should be noted that by, ".
. . outside the body" Zanakis clearly means, "and within the magnetic shield."
Zanakis also teaches, "In biomagnetic analysis, three types of magnetic
sensors are known to have adequate sensitivity and discrimination against
ambient noise for this purpose. The first is the induction coil. But because of
Nyquist noise associated with the resistance of the windings and its loss of
sensitivity at frequencies below a few Herz, the induction coil is rarely used
in MEG studies."
The present invention is differentiated from the
Zanakis system is several ways.
The signals for which the present
invention is monitoring have been observed to be on the order of 10.sup.-6 Gauss
(10.sup.-10 Tesla) at reasonable distance (e.g., 1 to 6 inches) from human
subjects. This is two orders of magnitude greater than the signals for which
Zanakas' apparatus is optimized.
While Zanakas apparently appreciated
that electromagnetic emissions other than those in which he was interested
occurred (e.g., his concern about the magnitude of the field produced by the
heart), he failed to attach significance to them, either in whole or in part. He
characterized emissions from the heart in terms of the difficulty they created
relative to his stated purpose of monitoring emissions from the brain. Zanakas
failed to realize that eliminating, for example, heart rate induced components
in this measurements was well within the state of the signal processing art.
Further, the design of Zanakas' apparatus is focused on eliminating, ".
. . magnetic fields extraneous to the region of interest . . . " The present
invention makes use of the organism's field in its totality as well as changes
detected in that field while moving the sensor above the surface of the
organism. While Zanakas' approach was probably productive for accomplishing a
magnetic emission map of the brain (or "other tissue") it actually works to
eliminate the influence of all other naturally occurring sources of emission
within the organism. In that respect, the present invention and that of Zanakas
are completely different in their approach and in their intended use.
Zanakas attributes Nyquist noise to his problems with induction coil
type sensors. Much of the advantage he attributes to SQUID type sensors is
specifically directed toward lowering the Nyquist noise by reducing resistance
and decreasing temperature. In fact, in the frequency range of interest in the
context of this invention, and at normal temperatures of operation, and with
proper design of the induction coil sensor, Nyquist noise in the sensor is at
least three orders of magnitude (60 dB) below the lowest signal levels required
for effective operation of the present invention. Consequently, the applicants
believe that Zanakas attributed the emissions that are the subject of this
invention to be Nyquist noise. This would indicate Zanakas did not understand
the nature of the emissions with which this invention is concerned and that the
purpose of his apparatus was, in fact, much more narrowly focused than his
disclosure of it would indicate.
While Zanakas mentions the spectra of
the emissions can be measured he does not indicate what significance should or
can be attached to them. The present invention's operation is based in large
part on interpreting the spectra of the emissions.
SUMMARY OF THE
A method, system, and apparatus are
described for monitoring the physical and emotional state, and the changes in
the physical and emotional state, of a living organism by means of the
electromagnetic emissions of the organism.
A sensor designed for
monitoring extremely low level, low frequency electromagnetic signals is used to
detect emissions from the organism under test. Since emissions of this type
attenuate rapidly with increasing distance, and since the emissions associated
with injuries vary with location on the organism relative to the injury, the
sensor is mounted in such as way to permit positioning about the organism.
The output of the sensor is connected to an instrumentation amplifier by
means of two-conductor shielded cable.
The instrumentation amplifier
incorporates a differential input, high gain, high impedance, low noise and a
guard output. The differential input reduces common mode noise from the sensor
and interconnecting cable. The high gain minimizes attenuation of the signal
resulting from loading of the sensor and interconnecting wiring. The low noise
minimizes the noise contributed to the amplifier's output by the internal
circuits of the amplifier, and the guard output is used to drive the shield of
the interconnecting wiring to lower signal loss from the two conductors to the
The output of the instrumentation amplifier is connected to a
series of low pass filters. These filters attenuate signals with frequencies
above those of primary interest, particularly power line frequencies (e.g., 60
Hz or 50 Hz.).
The output of the low pass filters is passed to an analog
to digital converter. This converter has sufficient dynamic range to resolve all
amplitudes of interest and sufficient bandwidth to pass all frequencies of
The output of the analog to digital converter is read by a
computer program for further processing. This additional processing includes
display and measurement of the waveform and measurement and display of the
frequency components of the waveform.
The data pertaining to the
frequency components taken separately and in conjunction with their relative
amplitudes can be used to infer the physical and emotional condition of the
organism under test. The changes in the waveform, its constituent frequencies
and their amplitudes can be used to infer changes in the emotional and physical
state of the organism.
A method, system, and
apparatus are described for modifying the physical and emotional state of a
living organism by means of the electromagnetic emissions.
designed for producing low level, low frequency electromagnetic signals is used
to provide emissions complementary to the emissions from the organism under
test. Since emissions of this type attenuate rapidly with increasing distance,
and since the emissions associated with injuries vary with location on the
organism relative to the injury, the sensor is mounted in such a way as to
permit positioning about the organism.
The radiator is connected to an
amplifier by means of two-conductor shielded cable.
The amplifier is
used to generate signals complementary to the signals characteristic of physical
or emotional irregularities radiated from the organism.
The amplifier is
driven by a function generator that can produce a series of selectable
frequencies with selectable amplitudes, said frequencies and amplitudes having
been selected for their therapeutic value.
The amplifier may also be
driven by a phase-adjusted and filtered signal derived from the sensor described
above. In this configuration the specific frequency components indicative of a
physical or emotional difficulty are isolated by filtering, modified in phase
and amplitude, and then fed to the radiator. This combination of sensor,
processor, radiator forms a closed loop (feedback) system providing
self-regulation of the therapeutic process.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide
a method of monitoring the electromagnetic emissions of living organisms.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of monitoring a
living organism that does not require physical contact with the organism or the
injection of chemicals or substances of any kind.
Another object of the
invention is to provide a method of monitoring a living organism that does not
subject the organism to externally generated signals of any kind (e.g., x-rays,
ultrasound, magnetic fields, heat).
Another object of the invention is
to provide an indication of the changes in the physical condition of an
Another object of the invention is to provide an indication of
the changes in the emotional condition of an organism.
Another object is
to provide a means of diagnosing the physical condition of an organism.
Another object is to provide biofeedback for assisting in the teaching
of therapeutic touch.
Another object is to provide a means of detecting
changes in the emotional state of an organism due to physical stress.
Another object is to provide a means of detecting changes in the
emotional state of an organism due to emotional stress.
A second primary
object of the present invention is to provide an instrumentality for providing
therapeutic electromagnetic signals.
Another object is to provide an
electromagnetic field with the proper frequency components of the proper
amplitude to counterbalance the signals characteristic of specific emotional or
Another object is to provide an electromagnetic field
with the proper frequency components of the proper amplitude and phase to
counterbalance signals indicative of specific emotional or physical conditions
as monitored at the same time by the sensor system described above, thus
providing a closed-loop self-regulating therapeutic system.
a first vantage point, it is an object of the present invention to provide a
device for monitoring a magnetic field emanating from an organism, comprising in
combination: sensor means proximate the organism; a signal emanating from the
sensor means; an amplifier receiving the signal from the sensor means and
amplifying the signal; a filter receiving the signal and filtering out
components of the signal which are not indicative of the organism's magnetic
field; and an output means coupled to the filter.
Viewed from a second
vantage point it is a further object of the present invention to provide a
magnetic field sensor for sensing magnetic fields originating from an organism,
including a coil of conductive material having a first end and a second end, the
material wrapped a plurality of times about a core, the core comprised of a
material having a high permeability to magnetic flux; and an output device
coupled to the coil and sensitive to a potential difference between the first
end and the second end, the potential difference comprising a signal.
Viewed from a third vantage point it is a further object of the present
invention to provide a method for harnessing magnetic fields surrounding an
organism including the steps of forming an organism interface proximate the
organism by placing a wire winding onto a ferromagnetic loop and adjacent the
organism, and amplifying a signal associated with the loop reflective of the
organism effecting the wire and loop whereby the magnetic fields surrounding the
organism can be used for diagnosis or treatment of the organism.
and other objects will be made manifest when considering the following detailed
specification when taken in conjunction with the appended drawing figures.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing
of the device of this invention when used to sense a magnetic field from the
organism and diagnose any illness based on characteristics of a signal from the
FIG. 2 is a schematic drawing of an alternative embodiment of
this invention where the signal is used to drive a magnetic field radiator for
treatment of the organism.
FIG. 3 is a schematic drawing of an
alternative embodiment of this invention which utilizes the signal generated
from the device of FIG. 1 to drive the device of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a
front view of the sensor of this invention.
FIG. 5 is a front view of
the sensor of this invention with a magnetic circuit included therein.
FIG. 6 is a graphic representation of the signal produced by the sensor
of this invention indicating changes in magnetic field of a person corresponding
to responses to questions and other stimuli.
FIG. 7 is a flow chart
revealing steps in the signal processing of the signal produced by the sensor
with waveforms corresponding to different portions of the processing shown
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
now to the drawing figures wherein like numerals represent like parts
throughout, numeral 50 of FIG. 1 represents an emission monitoring means and 60
of FIG. 2 represents a therapeutic radiating means.
In essence, the
emission monitoring means 50, includes the following basic components. A sensor
02 is located in the proximity of the organism, or part thereof, that is to be
monitored. This sensor 02 may be in contact with the organism 01 or may not be
in contact with the organism 01 as desired however it is anticipated that the
ability to monitor without contact will be the preferred embodiment. The sensor
02 is connected by wiring 03 to instrumentation amplifier 04. The amplified
signal is connected to filters 05 and then converted from analog to digital form
by analog-to-digital converter 06. The converted signal is then processed in a
computer 07 where the resulting waveform is displayed 08 for use by the
operator. Simultaneously, the signal is analyzed using digital signal processing
techniques 09 to extract its frequency spectrum and the magnitude of each
frequency component. The resulting spectrum is displayed 10 for use by the
operator and also provided as an input for diagnostic algorithms 11. The results
of the diagnostic analysis is displayed 12 for use by the operator.
specifically, the sensor 02 is located in the proximity of the organism 01 or
part thereof from which emissions are to be monitored.
The sensor 02 is
a device that can convert magnetic fields to electrical signals. Please see FIG.
4. Such a device can be fabricated by selecting a ferromagnetic core material,
such as steel, iron, or ferrite, and winding a large number of turns of wire 102
onto it. A spool 101 is used to contain and support the wire 102. A suitable
sensor can be fabricated by use of a 3,250 inch diameter by 10-inch long steel
rod 100. Approximately 20,000 turns of #29 AWG wire 102 is wound around it using
a plastic spool 101 to support the wire. There are other devices that can
function as a suitable sensor. A fluxgate device is one such example.
Since the strength of emissions decrease rapidly with distance, the
emissions near the sensor 02 will be dominant. The response of the sensor 02 to
emissions from a specific position on the organism 01 can be enhanced by
providing an apparatus that causes the magnetic path in the vicinity of the area
of interest to be optimized. This is done by providing a magnetic circuit
enhancing means 200 as shown in FIG. 5. This magnetic circuit enhancing means
can be made of any ferromagnetic material, such as iron or steel. Materials of
higher permeability (such as ferrite) are preferred. The sensitivity will be
highest for emissions that occur in the gap 201.
The output of the
sensor 02 is connected to the amplifier 04 by means of a two-conductor shielded
cable 03. Please see FIG. 1. One of the conductors is connected to the positive
input and the other to the negative input of the instrumentation amplifier 04.
The "guard" output of the instrumentation amplifier 04 is connected to the
shield of this cable to provide shielding from extraneous radiation, to enhance
the common mode rejection of the amplifier-sensor combination, and to preserve
the high input impedance of the instrumentation amplifier.
The output of
the instrumentation amplifier 04 is connected to low pass filters 05. Since the
sensor and amplifier respond to all electromagnetic fields they will exhibit a
very large response to the usually substantial fields associated with normal
electrical wiring. This produces very large amplitude signals compared to those
of interest in the monitoring of organisms. Typically, the fields at the
frequency of the electrical power lines will be several orders of magnitude
larger than those emitted from the organism under test 01. In the preferred
embodiment these power system generated signals are removed by low pass
filtering using at least three stages of active filters 05. These filters
provide nominal gain (2 in the preferred embodiment) and high rejection above
their design cutoff frequency. The design cut-off frequency would ideally be
about 30 Hz. Using a lower cut-off frequency provides more attenuation at the
power line frequency but does also attenuate some of the higher frequencies of
interest. In the preferred embodiment a cutoff frequency of 10 Hz was used. This
allowed adequate rejection of the 60 Hz power line signal with three stages of
filtering 05. Once the amplitude of the 60 Hz noise is reduced below the peak
level of the signal of interest it can be digitized without wasting a portion of
the dynamic range of the analog to digital converter 06.
signal is converted from analog form to digital form by the analog to digital
converter means 06. This device should have sufficient dynamic range to resolve
the largest and smallest signals of interest. In the preferred embodiment a
resolution of 16 bits was used providing a range of 65,536 to 1, or 96.33 dB.
The output of the analog-to-digital converter 06 is read into a digital
computer 07. This computer provides for display of these very low frequency,
slowly changing signals 08 and also provides an analysis means 09 from which the
frequency and amplitude of the constituent components of the measured waveform
can be identified and displayed on the display means 10. The preferred technique
for spectrum analysis is the "Fast Fourier Transform" which is well reported in
the literature. A new transform is performed and the display 10 updated each
time a new reading is available.
The output of the spectrum analysis
means 09 is also processed by a diagnostic algorithm processing means 11. This
processing amounts to correlating the frequency spectrum and the amplitudes of
the components thereof with cataloged patterns associated with certain
conditions of interest. This correlation is done using conventional pattern
The results of said diagnostic means is provided
for use by the operator on the display means 12. This output is typically a
written explanation of the condition and the logic behind the conclusion.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3
wherein like numerals represent like parts throughout, numeral 60 represents a
therapeutic radiating means.
In essence, the radiating means 60,
includes the following basic components. A radiating device 20 is located in the
proximity of the organism, or part thereof, that is to be treated. This radiator
may be in contact with the organism or may not be in contact with the organism
as desired however it is anticipated that the ability to do a treatment without
contact will be the preferred embodiment. The radiator is driven by a power
amplifier 21 which receives its signal from a function generator 22. This
function generator 22 is capable of generating waveforms with specific frequency
content as selected by the operator.
More specifically, the radiator 20
is located in the proximity of the organism 01 or part thereof from which
emissions are to be monitored. It is identical in construction to the monitoring
sensor 02 except that it is wound with fewer turns of wire 102. The smaller
number of turns is possible because the quantity of magnetic flux emitted by the
radiator 20 can be readily controlled by practical amplifiers 21 of relatively
high gain. Approximately 100 turns of #22 AWG wire are sufficient.
function generator 22 is used to generate a signal with the proper frequency and
amplitude content. The frequencies are selected on the basis of the condition to
be treated. The amplitudes are selected on the basis of the condition to be
treated and in consideration of the proximity of the sensor 02 and the radiator
20 to the area of the organism that is to receive the treatment.
Suitable function generators 22 are available from Hewlett Packard
Corporation (e.g., their Model HP 3245A and Model HP 3314A) but are more readily
implemented by using digital signal processing software on a computer. Constants
representing the desired frequencies and amplitudes are provided to an inverse
Fourier Transform algorithm which then generates the time domain equivalent
signal. The output from the digital signal processing algorithm is converted to
analog form by a digital-to-analog converter which is then used to drive the
amplifier means 21.
Alternatively, FIG. 3 indicates that a radiator
means 20 can be used in conjunction with a sensor means 02 to provide automatic
feedback-stabilized corrective signals. The output from the sensor 02 is
transmitted to an amplifier 04 by means of interconnecting wiring 03. The
specific frequency components indicative of the problem requiring therapy are
extracted by treatment specific filter means 30. The output from said filter
means 30 are modified in phase and amplitude by control means 32. The processed
signal is then provided as the input to the amplifier 21 and then to the
radiator means 20.
Referring in detail to FIGS. 4 and 6, details of one
use of this invention is described. When students are being trained in the
practice of therapeutic touch, it is often difficult for the student to develop
a personal magnetic field of sufficient intensity to be useful in monitoring or
treating a patient. Once the student has mastered the ability to generate a
sufficient field, the student can have difficulty identifying when a patient is
emitting an abnormal field and what malady is associated with the abnormality.
The sensor 02, shown in FIG. 4, can be utilized to assist the student in
enhancing his/her personal magnetic field. A magnetic field radiator 20 can be
used to give the student practice in recognizing magnetic fields of the type
emitted by a patient under various conditions. Specifically, the student wishing
to hone his/her personal magnetic field, especially that existing between the
student's hands, places his/her hands near opposite ends of the core 100 of the
The magnetic field produced by the student is then monitored
by the sensor 02 in conjunction with a display output of some sort. One form of
display is a graph of magnetic field vs. time as is shown in FIG. 6. When an
increased magnetic field is detected the student has an opportunity to recall
which "actions" caused the increase in the magnetic field. With practice, the
student will learn to control his/her ability to generate such a magnetic field.
FIG. 6 reveals output from the sensor 02 when the sensor 02 is oriented
between the hands of a skilled therapeutic touch practitioner. When questions
were asked of the practitioner, a spike 40 of activity would result. These
spikes 40 are indicative of responses (both verbal and nonverbal) to the
questions posed. The FIG. 6 data indicates that increased mental activity is one
source of increased magnetic field emission.
In other tests, changes in
magnetic field were detected when the sensor 02 was passed adjacent locations on
a patient where injuries had occurred. Not only are magnitudes of the field
emanating from the patient of interest, but also frequency components existing
in the signal 03 captured by the sensor provide an indication of the condition
of the patient. While many of the connections between magnetic field
characteristics and physical condition have yet to be verified by repeated
experimentation, the sensor 02 effectively quantifies the properties of this
field such that such research can take place in an objectively quantifiable
In use and operation, and as described in FIG. 7, the sensor 02
generates the signal 03 such that it can be utilized for diagnosis and / or
treatment in the following manner. Initially, the sensor 02 (with or without the
magnetic circuit 200) detects the magnetic field proximate to the sensor 02 and
creates a signal 03a having a voltage proportional to the magnetic field
intensity encountered by the sensor 02. This signal is typically characterized
by having a very low amplitude and exhibiting a number of different frequency
components riding thereon. The signal 45 shown in FIG. 6 is exemplary of one
form that signal could take.
To isolate these frequencies, the signal
03a is transformed into the frequency domain using methods known in the art as
Fourier analysis. This transformation results in a signal 03b having spikes 70.
These spikes 70 are distinct from the spikes 40 shown in FIG. 6 in that the
spikes 70 represent a high magnitude of energy at the specific frequency
represented. Note, for instance, that a spike 70 occurs at approximately 60 Hz.
This spike 70 indicates that various electric power sources in the region having
a frequency of 60 Hz have generated magnetic fields detectable by the sensor 02.
Other spikes 70 represent activity associated with the magnetic field emanating
from the patient.
The signals 03a, 03b are extremely low in magnitude as
compared to the contribution normally evident at 60 Hz. Accordingly, an
amplifier is used to provide the signal 03b with sufficient gain that in can be
thoroughly analyzed. With a sensor 02 such as that described above with a
3,250-inch diameter 10-inch long ferromagnetic core and 20,000 turns of wire 102
about the core 100 an amplifier-filter chain with a gain of approximately
6,000,000 (720 dB) has been effectively utilized.
components of the signal 03b are usually quite large and not indicative of the
magnetic field emanating from the patient. Thus, it is often desirable to filter
out frequencies above approximately 30 Hz to facilitate closer scrutiny of the
more indicative lower frequency components. Typically, this filtration can be
done through a low pass filter 05 (shown in FIG. 1) of a type common in the
signal processing art. This filtration typically results in a signal 03c. Note
that the signal 03c has a dramatically reduced magnitude at the 60 Hz frequency.
The signal 03c is of a form which lends itself readily to conversion
into a digital form through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (not shown).
The A/D converter allows the signal 03d to be inputted into a digital processor
such as a digital computer for further processing of the signal 03d.
Specifically, details of the low frequency components of the signal 03d can be
enhanced for analysis. Also, any remaining frequency component at the 60 Hz
level can be removed.
Once the signal 03d has been purified to more
exactly indicate magnetic field details representative of the patient's
condition, the signal 03d can be utilized for diagnosis or for treatment. One
form of treatment involves inverting the signal, converting the signal 03d back
into an analog signal, amplifying the signal and utilizing the signal to drive a
non-contacting radiator 20 such as that represented schematically in FIG. 3.
Moreover, having thus described the invention, it should be apparent
that numerous structural modifications and adaptations may be resorted to
without departing from the scope and fair meaning of the instant invention as
set forth hereinabove and as described hereinbelow by the claims.
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